An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

The Regional State of Xu 許

Nov 1, 2018 © Ulrich Theobald

The rulers of the small regional state of Xu 許, also written 鄦, located in today's Xuchang 許昌, Henan, were descendants of Bo Yi 伯夷, a minister of the mythological emperor Shun 舜. King Wu 周武王 of the Zhou dynasty 周 (11th cent.-221 BCE) reconfirmed the rule of the family over their territory in the upper reaches of River Ying 穎河. There is virtually nothing known about the history of this regional state, except a list of its rulers. They bore the family name Jiang 姜, and might have been related by marriage to the house of Zhou. The statelet was several times conquered by the state of Zheng 鄭, so that the rulers of Xu decided to rely on the state of Chu 楚 in the south for military support. Chu several times relocated the seat of the rulers of Xu, in 576 to Ye 葉, in 534 to Chengfu 城父, in 538 to Jing 荆 (actually in the territory of Chu), in 529 back to Ye, and in 506 to Rongcheng 容城. Another seat was Baiyu 白羽 . Around 480, Xu was extinguished by Zheng.

Table 1. Rulers of the regional state of Xu 許
Capital: Xu 許 (or 鄦; today's Xuchang 許昌, Henan), Ye 葉 (Yexian 業縣, Henan), Chengfu 城父 (or Yi 夷; Boxian 亳縣, Anhui), Baiyu 白羽 (or Xi 析; Xixia 西峽, Henan), Rongcheng 容城 (Lushanxian 魯山縣, Henan)
dynastic title personal name time
Xu Wenshu 許文叔 Jiang Ding 姜丁
Xu Denan 許德男
Feng, Viscount of Xu 許伯封 Jiang Feng 姜封
Xu Xiaonan 許孝男
Xu Jingnan 許靖男
Xu Kangnan 許康男
Xu Wugong 許武公
Xu Wengong 許文公 Jiang Xingfu 姜興父
Xu Zhuanggong 許莊公 Jiang Fei 姜茀, Jiang Juren 姜苴人 731-712
Xu Huangong 許桓公 Jiang Zheng 姜鄭 712-698
Xu Mugong 許穆公 Jiang Xinchen 姜新臣 698-656
Xu Xigong 許僖公 Jiang Ye 姜業 656-622
Xu Zhaogong 許昭公 Jiang Xiwo 姜錫我 622-592
Xu Linggong 許靈公 Jiang Ning 姜寧 592-547
Xu Daogong 許悼公 Jiang Mai 姜買 547-523
Si, Earl of Xu 許男斯 Jiang Si 姜斯 523-504
Xu Yuangong 許元公 Jiang Cheng 姜成 504-482
Jie, Earl of Xu 許男結 Jiang Jie 姜結 482-?
Zizhuang, Earl of Xu 許男子妝 Jiang Zizhuang 姜子妝 ?-?
Zi Jiangdui, Earl of Xu 許男子𤖙𠂤 Jiang ? Zijiangdui 姜子醬堆 ?-?
Bobiao, Earl of Xu 許男伯彪 Jiang Bobiao 姜伯彪 ?-?
Chen Houyao 陳厚耀 (1800). Chunqiu shizu pu 春秋世族譜 (Lianghu Shuyuan Zhengxuetang edition 兩湖書院正學堂本, 1899).
Wang Wenyuan 王文源 (1845). Chunqiu shizu jilüe 春秋世族輯略 (Xuxiu siku quanshu 續修四庫全書. 124).