An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Shanguo 山國

Oct 16, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

The state of Shanguo 山國, also called Moshan 墨山 or Shanwangguo 山王國 "Land of the mountain king", was located in the eastern parts of the northern route of the Silk Road, in the area of Mt. Kuluk 庫魯克 near modern Turfan 吐魯番, Xinjiang. During the Former Han period 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE), it had a population of 5,000 persons. The king of the state was aided by a Commander Supporting the State (fuguohou 輔國侯), a left and a right general, a left and a right commander-in-chief (duwei 都尉) and a translator. The population mainly lived in the mountains but cultivated grain that was exported to Yanqi 焉耆 and Weixu 危須. During the Han period it was subject to the Protector-general of the Western Territories (Xiyu duhu 西域督護). In the 3rd century CE it was conquered by Yanqi.

Gao Wende 高文德 (ed. 1995). "Shanguo 山國", in Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 118.