An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

The Daoist Pantheon and Deities in Popular Religion

Aug 13, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

This list includes deities of the Daoist pantheon that were either acknowledged by imperial patronage of found widespread veneration among Daoists. The second part includes deities and spirits that are venerated in popular religion, but only such that are venerated in a wider area or nation-wide. The third part a group of immortals appearing in Daoist tales or historical persons that were later venerated as deities.

Daoist Deities
三清 Sanqing The Three Pures
四御 Siyu The Four Guides
玉皇 Yuhuang The Jade Emperor
后土 Houtu The Goddess of the Soil
護法四聖 Hufa sisheng The Four Saints Protecting the Standards
五老君 Wulaojun The Five Old Lords
五星七曜星君 Wuxing qiyao xingjun The Lords of the Five Stars and the Seven Radiances
北斗七星君 Beidou qixing jun The Lord of the Seven Stars of the Northern Dipper
四靈二十八宿 Siling ershibaxie The Twenty-Eight Seats of the Four Spirits
真武大帝 Zhenwu dadi The Great Perfect Martial Emperor
長生大帝 Changsheng dadi The Great Emperor of Longevity
三官大帝 Sanguan dadi The Three Great Imperial Officials
黄帝 Huang Di The Yellow Emperor
西王母 Xiwangmu The Queen Mother of the West
東王公 Dongwang gong The Lord King of the East
九天玄女 Jiutian xuannü The Mysterious Maidens of the Nine Heavens
斗姆 Doumu Mother Dipper
嫘祖 Leizu The Goddess of Silk
二郎神 Erlangshen The Two Divine Ministers
玉女 Yunü Jade Girl, daughter of the Jade Emperor; Celestial servant
三皇五帝 Sanhuang wudi The Three Augusts and the Five Emperors
Popular deities

城隍 Chenghuang City gods
土地 Tudi or Sheshen 社神 Local deities
太歲 Taisui The Planet Jupiter
雷神 Leishen The God of Thunder
門神 Menshen The Door Gods
福祿壽三星 Fu lu shou sanxing The Three Stars of Wealth, Status and Longevity
竈神 Zaoshen The Kitchen Goddess
財神 Caishen The God of Money
Zhao Gongming 趙公明, god of money and of pestilence
行神 Xingshen
三尸神 Sanshishen
瘟神 Wenshen The Gods of Pestilence
蠶神 Canshen The goddess of silk
廁神 Ceshen The Goddess of the Latrine
醫王 Yiwang The King of Medicine
葯王 Yaowang The King(s) of Pharmaceuticals
杜康 Du Kang The God of Wine
媽祖 Goddess Mazu
Zhong Kui 鍾馗 (legendary person fighting against demons)
臨水夫人 Linshui furen The Lady of River Lin
保生大帝 Baosheng dadi The Great Emperor Protecting Life
開漳聖王 Kaizhang shengwang The Saint Prince of Kaizhang
三山國王 Sanshanguo wang The King of the Three Mountain Lands

Immortals and deified historical persons

赤松子 Master Red Pine
寧封子 Master Ningfeng
廣成子 Master Guangcheng
容成公 Master Rongcheng
赤精子 Master Red Essence
Peng Zu 彭祖 (Daoist immortal)
趙公明 Zhao Gongming (see also God of Money and Gods of Pestilence)
太玄女 Taixuannü (Xuan Nü The Maiden of the Great Mystery, Mysterious Maiden
關聖帝君 Guansheng dijun or 關公 Guan Gong (Guan Yu 關羽)
王喬 Wang Qiao
鬼谷先生 Guigu xiansheng
安期生 Anqi sheng
許真君 Xu zhenren
尹真人 Yin zhenren
薩真人 Sa zhenren
陰長生 Yin changsheng
河上公 Heshang gong
張三豐 Zhang Sanfeng
岳飛 Yue Fei
三茅真君 Sanmao zhenjun
麻姑 Magu
驪山老母 Lishan laomu The old lady from Mt. Lishan
四大真人 Si da zhenren
八仙 Baxian The eight immortals
王靈官 Wang Lingguan
文昌帝君 Wenchang dijun
東嶽大帝 Dongyue dadi
酆都大帝 Fengdu dadi
關聖帝君 Guansheng dijun
碧霞元君 Bixua yuanjun
降魔護道天尊 Jiangmo hudao tianzun
五嶽大帝 Wuyue dadi The great emperors of the five summits