An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Ming Political History

The Economical and Political Situation in the Mid-14th Century
The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang (Emperor Ming Taizu)
The Ming Conquest of China
The Hongwu Reign (1368-1398): Emperor Taizu
Consolidation and the Reorganisation of the Empire
The Rule of Terror
Succession Struggles of the Jianwen (1399-1402) and Yongle (1403-1424) Reigns
The Jianwen Reign
The Usurpation of the Yongle Emperor (Emperor Chengzu)
The Zheng He Expeditions
The Hongxi Reign (1425)
The Xuande Reign (1426-1435)
The New Mongol Threat
The Resurgence of the Mongols
The First Reign of Emperor Yingzong (1435-1449) and the Tumu Incident
The Jingtai Reign (1450-1456): Emperor Daizong
The Second Reign of Yingzong
The Chenghua (1465-1487) and Hongzhi (1488-1505) Reigns
The Zhengde Reign (1506-1521): Emperor Wuzong
The Jiajing Reign (1522-1566): Emperor Shizong
The Longqing Reign (1567-1572): Emperor Muzong
The Wanli Reign (1573-1619): Emperor Shenzong
The Last Glowing of the Ming Glory
The Politics of Zhang Juzheng
The Donglin Academy and Party Strife
The Three Military Campaigns of the Wanli Emperor
The Rise of the Manchus
The Taichang (1620), Tianqi (1621-1627) and Chongzhen (1628-1644) Reigns
The Uprising of Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong
The Manchu Conquest of Beijing and the Fall of the Ming
The Southern Ming (1644-1661)
The Southern Ming