ChinaKnowledge.de -
An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Jin Wengong 晉文公, Duke Wen of Jin

Dec 2, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

Jin Wengong 晉文公 (r. 636-628) was a ruler of the state of Jin 晉 during the Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE) and the second of the so-called five hegemons (wuba 五霸). His personal name was Ji Chong'er 姬重耳, and he was a son of duke Xian 晉獻公 (r. 676-651), who made him grand master (dafu 大夫) of the town of Pu 蒲 (modern Xixian 隰縣, Shanxi).

During the unrest caused by Li Ji 驪姬, Mingzhong took refuge to the Di 狄 tribes, and to a whole series of states. He stayed abroad for nineteen years and suffered all hardships of the common man. In 636 he was able to return under the protection of an army of Qin 秦 to mount the throne of Jin. He first killed his uncle, Duke Huai 晉懷公 (r. 637), and his ministers Lü Sheng 呂省 and Xi Rui 郤芮.

Through a centralisation of the government he was able to make Jin a powerful state. His first international activity was the re-enthronment of King Xiang of Zhou 周襄王 (r. 651-619). In 632 he defeated the army of Chu 楚 at Chengpu 城濮 (modern Zhengcheng 鄭城, Shandong), a victory that enabled him to assemble the regional rulers (zhuhou 諸侯) at Jiantu 踐土 (modern Yuanyang 原陽, Henan), and, in the presence of the king, he proclaimed himself the hegemonial lord (houbo 侯伯).

Although Duke Wen of Jin was only the second hegemonial lord, after Duke Huan of Qi 齊桓公 (r. 685-643), he was actually the one who institutionalized this position.

Source:
Cang Xiuliang 倉修良, ed. (1991). Shiji cidian 史記辭典 (Jinan: Shandong jiaoyu chubanshe), 404.
Chen Tao 陳濤 (1993). "Jin Wengong 晉文公", in Shi Quanchang 石泉長, ed. Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 236.
Chen Quanli 陳全力, Hou Xinyi 侯欣一, ed. (1988). Diwang cidian 帝王辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin jiaoyu chubanshe), 19.
Huang Banghe 黃邦和, Pi Mingxiu 皮明庥, ed. (1987). Zhong-wai lishi renwu cidian 中外歷史人物詞典 (Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe), 362.
Li Bingzhong 李秉忠, Wei Canjin 衛燦金, Lin Conglong 林從龍, ed. (1990). Jianming wenshi zhishi cidian 簡明文史知識詞典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe), 117.
Liu Mengxun 柳孟訓 (1997). "Jin Wengong cheng ba 晉文公稱霸", in Men Kui 門巋, Zhang Yanqin 張燕瑾, ed. Zhonghua guocui da cidian 中華國粹大辭典 (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), 3.
Wu Shuchen 武樹臣, ed. (1990). Zhongguo chuantong falü wenhua cidian 中國傳統法律文化辭典 (Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe), 235.
Xiong Tiejin 熊鐵基, Yang Youli 楊有禮, ed. (1994). Zhongguo diwang zaixiang cidian 中國帝王宰相辭典 (Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe), 58.
Yi Xingguo 衣興國, ed. (1988). Shiyong Zhongguo mingren cidian 實用中國名人辭典 (吉林文史出版社), 40.
Xue Hong 薛虹 et al, ed. (1998). Zhongguo huangshi gongting cidian 中國皇室宮廷辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 741.
Zhang Ke 張克, Huang Kangbo 黃康白, Huang Fangdong 黃方東, ed. (1991). Shiji renwu cidian 史記人物辭典 (Nanning: Guangxi renmin chubanshe), 80.
Zhang Huizhi 張撝之, Shen Qiwei 沈起煒, Liu Dezhong 劉德重 ed. (1999). Zhongguo lidai renming da cidiain 中國歷代人名大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe), Vol. 2, 1852.
Zhao Henglie 趙恒烈, Xu Xiqi 徐錫祺, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhong-wai lishi cidian 簡明中外歷史辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin jiaoyu chubanshe), 15.
Zhongguo baike da cidian bianweihui 《中國百科大辭典》編委會, ed. (1990). Zhongguo baike da cidian 中國百科大辭典 (Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe), 649.