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Youxue qionglin 幼學瓊林

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The Youxue qionglin 幼學瓊林 "Jade forest of primary education" is a textbook for primary eduction written in rhymes. It consists of two parts, the first written by the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) scholar Cheng Dengji 程登吉 (Cheng Yunsheng 程允升), the second by the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Zou Shengmai 鄒聖脈. Cheng's original book was called Youxue 幼學, Youxue xuzhi 幼學須知, Chengyu kao 成語考 or Gushi xunyuan 故事尋源, in various editions. The full name Youxue qionglin or Youxue gushi qionglin 幼學故事瓊林 was created by Zou for the basic text and his own additions. There is also a commentary by Qian Yuanlong 錢元龍 called Youxue xuzhi jujie 幼學須知句解 and one by Dong Chengzhong 董成重 called Youxue qiuyuan 幼學求源.
The Youxue qionglin is a kind of resumme of all important traditional writings, using a lot of older texts, but it also goes beyond the limits of its forerunners and has a very comprehensive character. Unlike older texts it is not bound to four-syllable verses as a method to memorize things. The text is written in prose, but often in paired sentences, without adhering to a very strict principle of rhymes, as older books of primary education did. The book is divided into 30 chapters providing an excellent, encyclopaedic overview of all aspects of nature and human life, from history and human relations to astronomy, geography, the administrative system, clothing, food, palaces, tools and objects, precious stones, diseases and funeral matters, state examinations, the arts, jurisdiction, Daoism and Buddhism, animals and plants. The Youxue qionglin was very popular during the Qing period and experienced a lot of publications. It was a basic textbook for primary education, side by side with the much more famous Sanzijing 三字經 and Bajiaxing 百家姓.

天文 Tianwen Astronomy
地輿 Diyu Geography
歲時 Suishi Time
朝廷 Chaoting The court
文臣 Wenchen Ministers and officials
武職 Wuzhi Military officials
祖孫父子 Zusun fuzi Ancestors and grandsons, father and son
兄弟 Xiongdi Older and younger brother
夫婦 Fufu Husband and wife
叔侄 Shuzhi Uncle and nephew
師生 Shisheng Teacher and pupil
朋友賓主 Pengyou binzhu Friends; guests and hosts
婚姻 Hunyin Matrimony
婦女 Funü Women
外戚 Waiqi Kinsmen of a wife
老幼壽誕 Laoyou shoudan Young and old age
身體 Shenti The body
衣服 Yifu Clothing
人事 Renshi Human affairs
飲食 Yinshi Drinking and eating
宮室 Gongshi Buildings
器用 Qiyong Tools and objects
珍寶 Zhenbao Jewellery
貧富 Pinfu Poor and rich
疾病死喪 Bingji sisang Sickness and death
文事 Wenshi Literature
科第 Kedi Examination
制作 Zhizuo Professions
技藝 Jiyi The arts
訟獄 Songyu Law
釋道鬼神 Shi dao guishen Buddhism, Daoism, ghosts and deities
鳥獸 Niaoshou Birds and beasts
花木 Huamu Flowers and trees

Sources: Li Zhitian 李稚田 (1993), "Youxue qionglin 幼學瓊林", in Zhongguo xiaoxue jiaoxue baike quanshu 中國小學教學百科全書, Yuwen 語文, p. 91. Shenyang: Shengyang chubanshe. ● Zhou Fazeng 周發增, Chen Longtao 陳隆濤, Qi Jixiang 齊吉祥 (ed. 1998), Zhongguo gudai zhengzhi zhidu cidian 中國古代政治制度史辭典 (Beijing: Shoudu shifan daxue chubanshe), p. 444.

November 19, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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