The Four Categories of Literature
The Shangshu dazhuan 尚書大傳 "Great tradition of the Book of the Elder" is an alternative version of the Confucian Classic Shangshu 尚書 "Book of Documents". There are today several reconstructions bearing the title of Shangshu dazhuan.
The proper Shangshu dazhuan was written by the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) scholar Fu Sheng 伏勝 and commented by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄. The 3 juan "scrolls" long text, with one supplementary juan (Buyi 補遺) was compiled by the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Sun Zhilu 孫之騄 on the base of fragments. It is said the Fu Sheng hid the Shangshu between the bricks of a wall during the Qin period 秦 (221-206 BCE) when all "practically useless" texts were prohibited. After the foundation of the Han dynasty, when Fu Sheng took out the book, only 29 chapters were left. He submitted this book, at that time known as the Jinwen Shangshu 今文尚書 "Book of Documents written in modern script" to the emperor. The book was transmitted until the Tang period 唐 (618-907), when it went lost. Sun Zhilu's reconstruction of the Shangshu dazhuan was the first attempt to collect was had survived as quotations in other books. His edition served as the base for the later reconstruction by Lu Wenchao 盧文弨. The imperial bibliography Jingjizhi 經籍志 of the official dynastic history Suishu 隋書 indicates that the length of Fu Sheng's book was 3 juan. Sun Zhilu therefore also divided his collection of fragments into 3 juan. His version, the so-called Yayu Studio version 雅雨堂本 (included in the collectaneum Yayutang cangshu 雅雨堂藏書), is preserved in the collected writings of Sun Zhilu, the Sun Qingchuan ba zhong 孫晴川八種.
Lu Wenchao's version is divided into 4 juan. It also contains a supplement (Buyi), a text-critical chapter (Kaoyi 考異) and an additional supplement (Xu buyi 續補遺). The commentary by Zheng Xuan is also included. Lu Wenchao has published a collection of 15 ancient books, the collectaneum Baojingtang congshu 抱經堂叢書, and the fragment collection Qunshu buyi 群書拾補. His collection of Shangshu dazhuan fragments was printed in 1800 by the Airicao Studio 愛日草堂.
There is another version published by an unknown author. It seems mainly to be based on Lu Wenchao's edition, but does not include the text-critical chapter. The sequence of the chapters Tangzhuan 唐傳 and Yu-Xia zhuan 虞夏傳 is mixed up in this version. Inspite of its many errors, it has been used as the basic text for the edition in the collectaneum Siku quanshu 四庫全書. Chen Shouqi 陳壽祺 has later tried to correct the errors of this version.
A fourth version has been published by Fan Renxu 樊廷緒. It includes Zheng Xuan's commentary, Lu Wenchao's preface, two prefaces by Fan, and a postface by Shen Can 沈粲. In his preface, Fan Renxu mentions the following versions: the Yangzhou version 揚州本, the Hangzhou version 杭州本, the Dezhou version 德州本 (Lu Wenchao), and a version by Master Dong 董氏 from Wuxing 吳興. The last version served as the basic text for Fan Renxu's publication which was printed in 1800.
A last, 3-juan version, the Shangshu dazhuan dingben 尚書大傳定本, has been published by Chen Shouqi 陳壽祺 (1771-1834) and Chen Li 陳澧. Chen Shouqi has also published a lot of studies on different versions of the Confucian Classics, like the Jinben Shangshu jingshuo kao 今文尚書經說考, Qi-Lu-Han sanjia Shi yishuo kao 齊魯韓三家詩遺說考, Wujing yiyi shuzheng 五經異義疏證, or the Zuohai jingbian 左海經辨. His collected belles-lettres writings is the Zuohai wenji 左海文集. Chen Li's writings include the Dongshu dushu ji 東塾讀書記 and his study on the treatises on music in the official dynastic histories, the Shenglü tongkao 聲律通考. Their version of the Shangshu dazhuan is not consistent in the amount of juan and the chapter sizes, yet it includes a text-critical chapter discussing forgeries (Bianwei 辨偽). It compares all previous versions except that of Master Dong. It is included in the collectaneum Gu jingjie huihan 古經解彙函.
I 唐傳 Tangzhuan The Book of Tang (Yao)
1. 堯典 Yaodian The Canon of Yao
II 虞傳 Yuzhuan The Book of Yu (Shun)
2. 九共 Jiugong
III 虞夏傳 Yu-Xiazhuan The Book of Yu and Xia
3. 咎繇謨 Qiyao mo
IV 虞傳 Yuzhuan The Book of Yu
4. 禹貢 Yugong The Tribute of Yu
V 夏傳 Xiazhuan The Book of Xia
5. 甘誓 Ganshi The Speech at Gan
VI 殷傳 Yinzhuan The Book of Yin (Shang)
6. 帝告 DigaoThe Announcement of the Emperor
7. 湯誓 Tangshi The Speech of Tang
8. 般庚 Pangeng King Pangeng
9. 說命 Yueming The Charge to Yue
10. 高宗肜日 Gaozong tong ri The Day of the Supplementary Sacrifice of King Gaozong
11. 高宗之訓 Gaozong zhi xun The Instructions of King Gaozong
12. 西伯戡耆 Xibo kan xi The Chief of the West's Conquest of the Xi People
VII 周傳 Zhouzhuan The Book of Zhou
13. 大誓 Dashi The Great Speech
14. 武成 Wucheng The Successful Completion of the War
15. 鴻笵 Hongfan The Great Plan
16. 大誥 Dagao The Great Announcement
17. 金縢 Jinteng The Golden Coffer
18. 微子之命 Weizi zhi ming The Charge to Prince Weizi
19. 嘉禾 Jiahe The Wonderful Grain Ear
20. 康誥 Kanggao The Announcement to Prince Kang
21. 酒誥 Jiugao The Announcement about Drunkenness
22. 杍材 Zicai The Timber of Rottlera
23. 召誥 Shaogao The Announcement of Duke Shao
24. 雒誥 Luogao The Announcement concerning Luoyang
25. 多士 Duoshi The Numerous Officers
26. 毋佚 Wuyi Against Luxurious Ease
27. 成王政 Chengwang zheng The Rule of King Cheng
28. 揜誥 Yangao (lost)
29. 多方 Duofang The Numerous Regions
30. 顧命 Guming The Testamentary Charge
31. 康王之誥 Kangwang zhi gao The Announcement of King Kang
32. 臩命 Guangming (lost)
33. 鮮誓 Xianshi
34. 甫刑 Fuxing Marquis Fu on Punishments
略說 Lüeshuo Short Instructions A-B
鴻笵五行傳 Hongfan wuxing zhuan The Great Plan and the Five Processes
Source: Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 134.
July 24, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
Chinese Literature over time