An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Pingding Yunnan huifei fanglüe 平定雲南回匪方略

Aug 14, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

(Qinding) Pinghai Yunnan huifei fanglüe (欽定)平定雲南回匪方略 "(Imperially endorsed) Military annals of the pacification of the Muslim bandits [!this is only a book title!] of Yunnan", short (Qinding) Pingding huifei fanglüe (欽定)平定回匪紀略, is a history on the suppression of a rebellion in Yunnan (the so-called Panthay Rebellion) by the Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911). It was compiled on official order under the supervision of Chen Bangrui 陳邦瑞 (b. 1855) and submitted to the throne by Prince Ihin 奕訢 (1833-1898) in 1892. It is part of a set of military annals called Pingding qisheng fanglüe 平定七省方略 "Military annals of the pacification of the seven provinces". The 50-juan long book is also known under the short name Pingding huifei fanglüe 平定回匪方略 "Miliary annals of the pacification of the Hui bandits".

In 1851 the Muslim leader Du Wenxiu 杜文秀 (1823-1872) occupied some state-operated copper mines of Yunnan that were located on territories of Muslim communities. In 1856 Ma Fuchu 馬復初 (also called Ma Dexin 馬德新) rose in rebellion in Xinxing 新興 (modern Yuxi 玉溪, Yunnan). He was joined by rebellions under Ma Rulong 馬如龍 (1794-1874) and some natives of the Yi tribes 彝族. In the same year Du Wenxiu adopted the title of Great Marshal commanding the infantry and cavalry, occupied the city of Dali 大理 and proclaimed the empire of Jinfu 金福 "Golden Luck". He propagated resistance to the Qing dynasty and is therefore often seen in one line with the Heavenly Kingdom of the Taiping 太平天國. Because of the huge success of the rebellion, governor-general Hengchun 恒春 was forced to commit sucide. This was the beginning of a twenty-years long resistance against the Qing government.

The book includes palace memorials and imperial edicts to narrate - in a kind of sourcebook - the history of this rebellion, beginning in 1855 and ending in 1879. The book was printed by the Imperial Household (neiwufu 內務府) in 1892 and again by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 外務部 in 1902.

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