The Four Categories of Literature
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(Qinding) Waifan Menggu Huibu wanggong biaozhuan (欽定)外藩蒙古回部王公表傳 "(Imperially endorsed) Genealogical tables and biographies of the princes and dukes of the Outer Mongols and the Muslim leaders", shortly called Menggu huibu wanggong biaozhuan 蒙古回部王公表傳 or Menggu wanggong gongji biaozhuan 蒙古王公功績表傳, is a collection of biographies compiled during the late Qianlong reign 乾隆 (1736-1795) during the mid-Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911). It includes leading persons from the allies of the Manchu dynasty of the Qing. The 120 juan "scrolls" long book was finished in 1789. The text description of the imperial collectaneum Siku quanshu 四庫全書, the Siku tiyao 四庫提要, calls it (Qinding) Menggu wanggong gongji biaozhuan 欽定蒙古王公功績表傳 "(Imperially endorsed) Genealogical tables and biographies of meritorious princes and dukes of the Outer Mongols" and indicates a length of only 12 juan, which might be an error. The book consists of 16 juan of 43 genealogical tables (shixi biao 世襲表), 33 "summary biographies" (zongzhuan 總傳) of tribes and peoples, and 284 individual biographies (liezhuan 列傳) of noble families. Scroll 12 is dedicated to persons from Tibet (Xizang 西藏), scroll 14 to Uyghur chiefs from Hami 哈密 and Turfan 吐魯番. All others are dedicated to Mongolian persons. The rest of the book included prose biographies, each part of which is headed by a general introduction that explains the political and tribal situation among the peoples dealt with. The book begins with a preface written by the Qianlong emperor in which he explains the structure of the 49 Mongolian leagues (qi 旗) and the history of the ruling house of the various jasagh (Chinese transcription zhasake 紮薩克) chieftains of the Qalqa Mongols. The concept of the book follows the biographic collection (Qinding) Zongshi wanggong gongji biaozhuan (欽定)宗室王公功績表傳, which includes the biographies of persons from the imperial house. For each tribe, a distinct chronological table is provided that gives an overview of the leaders and eminent persons of this people and their relations to the Qing court. The sources for the biographies were mainly the so-called "red documents" from the Grand Secretariat Archives (neige daku kuzhu hongben 內閣大庫庫貯紅本), and also the official veritable records (shilu 實錄), but also registers and family rosters from the Court of Colonial Affairs (lifanyuan 理藩院). The arrangement of the tribex follows the imperial atlas Huangyu quantu 皇輿全圖. The biographic collection is included in the Siku quanshu and the collection Guochao qixian leizheng 國朝耆獻類徵.
A sequel to the text was compiled in 1812 and printed in 1814. The (Qinding) Xuzuan waifan Menggu Huibu wanggong biaozhuan (欽定)續纂外藩蒙古回部王公表傳 consists of five parts. The first has a length of 48 juan. There is also a Manchu and a Chinese edition, but the Chinese edition was finished first, and the Manchu version was produced as a translation from the Chinese version, and the Mongolian version from the Manchu version. The bilingual second part was finished in 1836, printed in 1839 and has a length of 72 juan. The third was completed in 1849 and consists of 24 juan in Manchu, Chinese and Mongolian. The fourth supplement appeared in 1859. Manchu-Mongolian version is 48 juan long, the Chinese one 24. The last supplement was begun in 1884 but was not yet finished, when the empire was finished in 1911. The quality of these supplements is not as high as the first collection of biographies because all of them were compiled in a quite hasty manner.
(1) 科爾沁部表 Qorčin, 扎賚特部表 Jalaid, 杜爾伯特部表 Dörbed, 郭爾羅斯部表 Gorlos
(2) 喀喇沁部表 Qaračin, 土默特部表 Tümed
(3) 敖漢部表 Aohan, 奈曼部表 Naiman, 巴林部表 Baarin, 扎嚕特部表 Jalut, 阿嚕科爾沁部表 Alu Qorčin, 翁牛特部表 Ongniud, 克什克騰部表 Heshigten, 喀爾喀左翼部表 Left-Wing Qalqa
(4) 烏珠穆沁部表 Ujimqin, 浩齊特部表 Qočita
(5) 四子部落表 Dürben Keüked, 茂明安部表 Muminggan, 烏喇特部表Ulat, 喀爾喀左翼部表 Left-Wing Qalqa xxx right?
(6) 鄂爾多斯部表 Ordos
(7) 喀爾喀土謝圖汗部表 Qalqa Tüsiyetu Qan
(8) 喀爾喀汗部表 Qalqa Qan
(9) 喀爾喀扎薩克圖汗部表 Qalqa Jasaghtu Qan
(10) 喀爾喀賽音諾顏部表 Qalqa Sain Noen
(11) 阿拉善厄魯特部表 Alashan Oirats, 青海厄魯特部表 Qinghai Oirats
(12) 西藏部表 (Mongolian) tribes in Tibet, 綽羅斯部表 Choros, 杜爾伯特部表 Dörbed
(13) 土爾扈特部表 Torghut, 和碩特部表 Qošut
(14) 哈密回部表 Muslims in Hami, 吐魯番回部表 Muslims in Turfan
(15) 居歸化城之土默特表 Tümeds in Guihua, 居察哈爾之和碩特表 Qošuts in Čahar, 居黑龍江之厄魯特表, Oirats in Heilongjiang, 居科布多之扎哈沁表 Zakhchins in Kobdo
(16) 居京師之回爵表 Muslim nobles in Beijing, 居新疆之回爵表 Muslim nobles in Xinjiang
(21) 扎賚特部 Jalaid, 杜爾伯特部及貝子蒙袞等傳 Dörved, Princely Menggun etc.
(22) 郭爾羅斯部及鎮國公布木巴等傳 Gorlos,
Source: Gao Wende 高文德 (ed. 1995), Zhongguo shaoshu minzu da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), p. 1672. ● Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 974.
June 12, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
Chinese Literature over time