ChinaKnowledge.de -
An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Songmo jiwen 松漠紀聞

Jul 3, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

Songmo jiwen 松漠紀聞 "Report about Songmo" is a privately written account of the region of Songmo, which is the modern region of Manchuria (Liaoning, Jilian and Heilongjiang). It was written by the Song-period 宋 (960-1279) scholar Hong Hao 洪皓 (1088-1155), courtesy name Guangbi 光弼.

In 1129 Hong was ambassador of the Song court to the imperial court of the Jin dynasty 金 (1115-1234), which had been founded by the Non-Chinese people of the Jurchens. The Jurchen ruler tried to force Hong to serve as a minister in the Jin-dominated puppet state of Qi 齊, which was ruled by Liu Yu 劉豫 (1078-1143). Hao refused and was caught prisoner. He was sent to Lengshan 冷山, which is located near the northern capital Shangjing 上京 of the Jin empire (Huining 會寧, modern Acheng 阿城 in Heilongjiang). This region was called Songmo during the Tang period 唐 (618-907), hence the name of the book. He spent fifteen years in the Jin empire before he returned to the south. Back in the Song empire he criticised the mighty counsellor Qin Hui 秦檜 (1091-1155) and was banished to exile far in the south were he died.

Hong Hao had burnt his first draft to his report but later was able to reconstruct it. Because private histories were not allowed to circulate in the Song empire his book was never published. Around 1160 his son Hong Kuo 洪适 (1117-1184) rearranged and his report and added two juan. Even this 3-juan version was later damaged, and Hong's second son Hong Zun 洪遵 (1120-1174) was able to reconstruct only 11 chapters, in 3 juan. There are two different versions preserved today, one in the reprint series Gujin yishi 古今逸史, and one in the series Xuejin taoyuan 學津討源.

Although the book in its second version was only written down from memory the things told in it are reported from the experience of an eyewitness and are therefore an important source for the political history of the Jin dynasty and the customs of the Jurchen people.

Sources:
Chen Shu 陳述 (1992). "Songmo jiwen 松漠紀聞", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, 968.
Fan Lizhou 范立舟 (2002). "Songmo jiwen shiliao jiazhi juli 《松漠紀聞》史料價值舉例", Shixue shi yanjiu 史學史研究, 2002 (2).
Gao Wende 高文德, ed. (1995). Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 1296.
Huo Mingkun 霍明琨 (2008). "Songmo jiwen zhong suo jian de Jin-chu wenjiao ji keju 《松漠紀聞》中所見的金初文教及科舉", Lishi jiaoxue (Gaoxiao ban) 歷史教學(高校版), 2008 (2).
Jiang Yu 姜雨, Sun Hongmei 孫紅梅 (2018). "Cong Songmo jiwen kan Jin-chu xingfa tedian 從《松漠紀聞》看金初刑法特點", Neimenggu Minzu Daxue xuebao (Shehui kexue ban) 内蒙古民族大學學報(社會科學版), 2018 (11).
Li Qinghao 李慶皋 (1987). "Suibi zuanlu jianlian xiangshi: Ping Songmo jiwen 隨筆纂錄 簡煉翔實—評《松漠紀聞》", Tushuguanxue yanjiu 圖書館學研究, 1987 (3).
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 936.
Ma Jinying 馬金英, Ma Xiaoming 馬曉明 (2009). "Songmo jiwen ciyu kaoshi 《松漠紀聞》詞語考釋", Yuwen xuekan 語文學刊, 2009 (11).
Wang Kebin 王可賓 (1988). "Nüzhen dilii fengqing: Songmo jiwen zhaji 女真地理風情——《松漠紀聞》札記", Beifang wenwu 北方文物, 1988 (4).
Wang Quanxing 王全興 (1982). "Hong Hao yu Songmo jiwen 洪皓與《松漠紀聞》", Heilongjiang wenwu congkan 黑龍江文物叢刊, 1982 (4).
Wang Songling 王松齡, ed. (1991). Shiyong Zhongguo lishi zhishi cidian 實用中國歷史知識辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 720.
Wen Heng 聞衡 (2005). "Songmo jiwen suo yi de yi tiao zhongyao shiliao 《松漠紀聞》所遺的一條重要史料", Heilongjiang shizhi 黑龍江史志, 2005 (11).
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1994). Zhongguo gudai wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Wenxue 文學卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 370.
Yang Guang 楊光 (2019). "Chutan Songmo jiwen: Beifang Jinguo zhi di de lishi bianqian 初探《松漠紀聞》—北方金國之地的歷史變遷", Wenhua xuekan 文化學刊, 2019 (8).
Zheng Yunbo 鄭雲波, ed. (1992). Zhongguo gudai xiaoshuo da cidian 中國古代小說辭典 (Nanjing: Nanjing daxue chubanshe), 415
Zhou Qiaomu 周喬木 (2016). "Lun liuren jiyi shuxie zhong de zhibi yu qubi: Yi Songmo jiwen yu Ningguta zhi de bijiao wei zhongxin 論流人記憶書寫中的直筆與曲筆—以《松漠紀聞》與《寧古塔志》的比較為中心", Fujian Guangbo Dianshi Daxue xuebao 福建廣播電視大學學報, 2016 (12).