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Rixia jiuwen 日下舊聞, (Qinding) Rixia jiuwen kao (欽定)日下舊聞考


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Rixia jiuwen 日下舊聞 "Hearsay of Old Matters from Under the Sun" is a local gazetteer about Beijing written by the early Qing period 清 (1644-1911) historian Zhu Yizun 朱彝尊 (1629-1709). Zhu was erudite literatus (boxue hongci ke 博學鴻詞科), then examining editor (jiantao 檢討), and participated in the compilation of the official dynastic history of the Ming dynasty 明 (1368-1644), the Mingshi 明史. In these functions he had access to a lot of documents and made use of 1,649 different types of texts for his research on the history of Beijing. His 42 juan "scrolls" long book was finished in 1687 and is crowned by prefaces written by eminent scholars like Xu Qianxue 徐乾學, Gao Shiqi 高士奇 and Chen Tingjing 陳廷敬. The term rixia 日下 "under the sun" means in the capital Beijing (a term used by the Tang period 唐 (618-907) writer Wang Bo 王勃 for the capital Chang'an 長安 (modern Xi'an 西安, Shaanxi) in his essay Tengwangge xu 滕王閣序). The detailed table of the Rixia jiuwen of contents provides a quick overview of all themes the book covers. It is divided into 13 chapters, with numerous sub-chapters, covering the history of Beijing from remote antiquity until the end of the Ming period. There is an appendix about the Stone Drum inscriptions 石鼓文 from the late Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE) that had found their way to Beijing somehow. The book covers the themes topography, astronomy, palaces, city quarters, streets, markets, local administration, the capital mints and workshops, citygates, brides, temples, shrines, touristic spots, and their change over time. The book also describes the surroundings of Beijing, its culture and economy, and the situation of agriculture and irrigation in the districts adjacent to the city. The book is very detailed and therefore an important source for the history of Beijing.
The Rixia jiuwen was first printed in 1688 by the Liufeng Hall 六峰閣. Zhu Yizun's son Zhu Kuntian 朱昆田 has written a supplement to the book that is in most editions appended to the main text. In 1981 the Beijing guji press 北京古籍出版社 published a modern, annotated edition of the Rixia jiuwen.


Contents
星土 Xingtu Astronomy
世紀 Shiji History of the city
形勝 Xingsheng Topology
宮室 Gongshi Palace buildings
城市 Chengshi Urban quarters and markets
郊坰 Jiaojiong Suburbs
京畿 Jingji Capital district (and adjacent districts)
僑治 Qiaozhi Administration of immigrants
邊障 Bianzhang Passes and border regions
户牧 Humu Population
風俗 Fengsu Customs and habits
物產 Wuchan Local products
雜綴 Zazhui Miscellaneous sources

Source: Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗雲 (ed. 1991), Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Dili 地理 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), p. 50.


(Qinding) Rixia jiuwen kao (欽定)日下舊聞考 "(Imperially Endorsed) Investigations About Hearsay of Old Matters from Under the Sun" is a geographical treatise compiled on imperial order under the supervision of Yu Mingzhong 于敏中, Dou Guangnai 竇光鼐 and Zhu Yun 朱筠. The 160 juan "scrolls" long book was finished in 1774 and presented to the throne as a supplement and commentary to Zhu Yizun's 朱彝尊 Rixia jiuwen 日下舊聞 from the early Qing period 清 (1644-1911). The book is arranged in 17 chapters with themes like a standard local gazetteer, describing the starry sky above Beijing, its history, its topography, palaces, the city wall, the imperial city, the offices and official buildings, parks and gardens, the suburbs, the metropolitan district (jingji 京畿), the households, the people's custums and habits, local products, the border regions, and miscellaneous topics. In comparison to Zhu Yizun's book this revised edition includes 42 juan more, mostly enriched by accounts on palace buildings and imperial gardens (like the Yuanming yuan 圓明園, Qingyi yuan 清漪園 or Jingyi yuan 靜宜園). The chapters Guochao gongshi 國朝宮室, Jingcheng zashuo 京城總説, Huangcheng 皇城 and Guochao yuanyou 國朝苑囿 are new, and the chapter Guanshu 官署 was separated from the chapter Chengshi 城市 in the original. Additions in the revised editions are marked with two terms, namely bu 補 (additions by Zhu's son Zhu Kuntian 朱昆田) and ceng 增 (additions by Dou Guangnai and Zhu Yun), while the original text of Zhu Yizun is marked with the word yuan 原 "original". Both texts are important sources for the history of Beijing in the early and high Qing period and the changes of the capital's face between the Kangxi 康熙 (1662-1722) and the Qianlong 乾隆 (1736-1796) reigns. It does not only include a lot of information about the buildings of the city, but also quotes texts from a lot of inscriptions of steles and other objects, like the Stone Drum Texts (shiguwen 石鼓文) from the Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE), Su Lingzhi's 蘇靈芝 inscription on a stone slab in Minzhong Monastery 閔忠寺 from the Tang period 唐 (618-907), or the inscriptions on the buildings of the Yuanming yuan Garden that was destroyed in 1861.
The Rixia jiuwen kao was printed in 1786. A modern, annotated edition was published in 1981 by the Beijing guji press 北京古籍出版社.


Contents
星土 Xingtu Astronomy
世紀 Shiji History of the city
形勝 Xingsheng Topology
國朝宮室 Guochao gongshi Palace buildings under the Qing dynasty
宮室 Gongshi Buildings from the Liao to the Ming dynasties
京城總説 Jincheng zongshuo Overview of the capital's arrangment
皇城 Huangcheng The city wall
城市 Chengshi Urban quarters and markets
官署 Guanshu Administrative buildings
國朝苑囿 Guochao yuanyou Gardens and parks of the Qing dynasty
郊坰 Jiaojiong Suburbs
京畿 Jingji Capital district (including the districs of Tongzhou 通州, Jizhou 薊州, Xianghe 香河, Zhuozhou 涿州, Bazhou 霸州 and Changping 昌平)
户牧 Humu Population
風俗 Fengsu Customs and habits
物産 Wuchan Local products
邊障 Bianzhang Passes and border regions
存疑 Cunyi Unresolved problems of the Rixia jiuwen
雜綴 Zazhui Miscellaneous sources

Sources: Ding Xiaozhi 丁孝智 (1992), "Rixia jiuwen kao 日下舊聞考", in Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Lishi 歷史卷 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe), p. 339. ● Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗雲 (ed. 1991), Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Dili 地理 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), p. 50.

November 21, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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