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Shijing kaoyi 石經考異


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Shijing kaoyi 石經考異 "Research on Differences in the Stone Classics" is a book on the Stone Classics compiled by early Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Hang Shijun 杭世駿 (1698-1773), courtesy name Han Dayong, style Jinfu 堇甫. He came from Renhe 仁和 near Hangzhou 杭州, Zhejiang, obtained his junshi degree in 1724 and was made professor in 1736, then junior compiler (bianxiu 編修), and finally Censor (yushi 御史) during the Qianlong reign 乾隆 (1736-1796). The 2 juan "scrolls" (in the Hangshi qizhong 杭氏七種 edition) long book was written as a supplement to Gu Yanwu's 顧炎武 study Shijing kao 石經考. Gu Yanwu had been very interested in the question whether the Stone Classics incised into stone slabs during the Zhengshi reign 正始 (240-248) of the Wei period 曹魏 (220-265) were only written in one writing style, or in three typefaces. According to the imperial bibliography Jingjizhi 經籍志 of the official dynastic history Suishu 隋書, he said, there were only two Classics written in three different typefaces, namely the Shangshu 尚書 and Chunqiu 春秋, but another passage in the same chapter speaks of only one typeface. Hang Shijun came to the conclusion that there is no clear written proof that the Wei Stone Classics were written in three typefaces, but it was only a general assumption that the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) Stone Classics had been written in one, and the Wei Classics in three writings styles, and this statement was spread by texts like Zhai Zhongrong's 瞿中溶 Han shijing kaoyi buzheng 漢石經考異補正 or Feng Dengfu’s 馮登府 Shijing kaoyi 石經考異, or by the scholars Li E 厲鶚 and Quan Zuwang 全祖望. The latter even brings forward the argument that the Jingjizhi had wrongly written "one" instead of "three". Hang Shijun also demonstrates that it was not seven Classics whose text was incised into stone slabs during the Han period, but only five, as can be seen in many contemporary sources. Yet if one takes the Classics Yili 儀禮 and Liji 禮記 as one text ("ritual texts") and the Chunqiu and its commentary Gongyangzhuan 公羊傳 also as one unit, the number of five can be enlarged to seven. In the biograhpies of Cai Yong 蔡邕, the calligrapher of the Han Classics, and Zhang Xun 張馴, there is talk of six incised texts, which might include the "Confucian Analects" Lunyu 論語. The arguments of Hang Shijun can therefore be countered. The most problematic point in his book is that he used contradicting sources to prove that Handan Chun 邯鄲淳 cannot have written the calligraphy for the Zhengshi Classics because he must have been incredibly old at that time, if he had not written the calligraphy much earlier than the actual reproduction of the text in stone.
The Shijing kaoyi is to be found in the collectaneum Huang-Qing jingjie 皇清經解, but split up in six texts, each treating the stone inscriptions of one historical period.

Source: Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 845.

October 6, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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