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Yingya shenglan 瀛涯勝覽

Sep 15, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

Yingya shenglan 瀛涯勝覽 "Overall survey of the oceans" is a description of foreign countries in southeast and south Asia from the Ming period 明 (1368-1644). It was written by Ma Huan 馬歡 (1380-1460), who had taken part in several of the sea travels of Admiral Zheng He 鄭和 (1371-1433). Ma was assisted by Guo Chongli 郭崇禮 for the compilation.

Ma Huan describes twenty countries he had visited during his journey. He touches geography as well as matters of traffic (ports) and local customs and habits, religion and legal matters, natural products and the economic conditions. The Yingya shenglan is much more detailed than the Xingcha shenglan 星槎勝覽. It is not only a valuable source concerning those countries but also concerning the travels of Zheng He.

There are several version of the book in various series: the Jilu huibian 紀錄彙編 version, the Guochao diangu 國朝典故 version, the Shengchao yishi 勝朝遺事 version, and the Sanbao zhengyi ji 三寶征彝集 version.

In 1935 Ma Chengjun 馬承鈞 published a critical edition based on three of these versions. The Yingya shenglan is also part of the series Shidi xiao congshu 史地小叢書, published in 1936 by the Shangwu Yinshuguan Press 商務印書館. It was reprinted by the Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局 press in 1955. In 2005 Wan Ming 萬明 published a critical edition of the Ming manuscripts, Ming chaoben Yingya shenglan jiaozhu 明鈔本瀛涯勝覽校注.

Table 1. Contents of the Yingya shenglan 瀛涯勝覽
寶船與人員 Baochuan yu renyuan The treasure fleet and its manning
占城國 Zhancheng (Champa, today southern Vietnam)
瓜哇國 Guawa (Java)
舊香國 Jiuxiang (Palembang)
暹羅國 Xianluo (Siam, modern Thailand)
滿剌加國 Manlajia (Malacca)
啞魯國 Yalu (Aru in Sumatera)
蘇門答臘國 Sumendala (Sumatera)
那孤兒國 Nagu'r (Nagur or Nakur in Sumatera)
黎代國 Lidai (Litai or Lide in Sumatera)
那浡里國 Naboli (Lamuri in Sumatera)
錫蘭國 Xilan (Ceylan, modern Sri Lanka)
裸形國 Luoxing (Nicobar Islands)
小葛蘭國 Xiao Gelan (Kulam or Quilon in southern India)
柯枝國 Kezhi (Cochin in southern India)
古里國 Guli (Calicut in India)
溜山國 Liushan (Maldive Islands)
祖法兒國 Zufa'r (Zufar or Dhofar in Arabia)
阿丹國 Adan (Aden in Arabia)
榜葛剌國 Banggela (Bengal)
忽魯謨廝國 Hulumosi (Hormuz, today Oman)
天方國 Tianfang (Mecca)
Sources:
He Shengdi 賀聖迪 (1996). "Yingya shenglan 瀛涯勝覽", in Zhou Gucheng 周谷城, ed. Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Vol. Keji 科技卷 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe), 330.
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗云, ed. (1991). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Dili 地理卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 415.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 952.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1994). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Wenxue 文學卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 784.
Zheng Hesheng 鄭鶴聲 (1992). "Yingya shenglan 瀛涯勝覽", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Part Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 3, 1410.