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Lianlizhuan 廉吏傳

Jul 15, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Lianlizhuan 廉吏傳 "Biographies of honest officials" is a biographical collection written by the Song-period 宋 (960-1279) master Fei Shu 費樞 (early 12th cent.), courtesy name Boshu 伯樞, from Chengdu 成都, Sichuan. His highest office was prefect (zhizhou 知州) of Guizhou 歸州 (today in Hubei). Apart from this collection, Fei wrote a biji 筆記 "brush-notes" style essay called Diaoji litan 釣磯立談 (not the famous Diaoji litan by Shi Wen 史溫).

The 2-juan long Lianlizhuan assembles the biographies of 114 persons living between the Spring and Autumn 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE) and the Tang period 唐 (618-907). The text of each person is brief and concise and includes an assessment on the integrity in office. The preface dates from 1125. The book catalogue Zhizhai shulu jieti 書錄解題 lists the book with a length of 10 juan.

The first preserved print dates from 1615. The book is included in the imperial series Siku quanshu 四庫全書.

Table 1. Contents of Fei Shu's 費樞 Lianlizhuan 廉吏傳
周列國 Regional states of the Zhou period
季孫行父 Jisun Xingfu, 晏嬰 Yan Ying, 羊舌肸 Yangshe Xi, 魏戊 Wei Wu, 樂喜 Le Xi, 鬬子文 Douzi Wen, 孫叔敖 Sunshu Ao, 百里奚 Baili Xi, 公儀休 Gong Yi Xiu
西漢 Western Han period
鄭當時 Zheng Dangshi, 公孫弘 Gongsun Hong, 王吉 Wang Ji, 貢禹 Gong Yu, 尹翁歸 Yin Wenggui, 蓋寛饒 Gai Kuanrao, 薛宣 Xue Xuan, 朱博 Zhu Bo, 翟方進 Zhai Fangjin, 朱邑 Zhu Yi
東漢 Eastern Han period
吳漢 Wu Han, 宣秉 Xuan Bing, 王良 Wang Liang, 鄭均 Zheng Jun, 孔奮 Kong Fen, 張堪 Zhang Kan, 羊續 Yang Xu, 賈琮 Jia Cong, 鍾離意 Zhongli Yi, 第五倫 Diwu Lun, 袁彭 Yuan Peng, 李恂 Li Xun, 楊震 Yang Zhen, 楊秉 Yang Bing, 吳祐 Wu You, 張奐 Zhang Huan
魏 Empire of Wei
毛玠 Mao Jie, 華歆 Hua Xin, 和洽 He Qia
吳 Empire of Wu
陸胤 Lu Yin, 是儀 Shi Yi
蜀 Empire of Shu
諸葛亮 Zhuge Liang, 鄧芝 Deng Zhi
兩晉 Jin period
盧欽 Lu Qin, 阮修 Ruan Xiu, 賀循 He Xun, 庾冰 Yu Bing, 陸納 Lu Na, 孔愉 Kong Yu, 謝尚 Xie Shang, 王恂 Wang Xun, 胡威 Hu Wei, 杜軫 Du Zhen, 竇允 Dou Yun, 鄧攸 Deng You, 吳隱之 Wu Yinzhi
南史 Southern Dynasties
王琨 Wang Kun, 王惠 Wang Hui, 孔顗 Kong Kai, 褚彦回 Chu Yanhui, 裴昭明 Pei Zhaoming, 顧憲之 Gu Xianzhi, 阮長之 Ruan Changzhi, 甄彬 Zhen Bin, 虞愿 Yu Yuan, 范述曾 Fan Shuceng, 孫謙 Sun Qian, 何遠 He Yuan, 郭祖深 Guo Zushen
北史 Northern Dynasties
長孫道生 Zhangsun Daosheng, 裴俠 Pei Xia, 袁聿修 Yuan Yuxiu, 庫狄士文 Kudi Shiwen, 郎基 Lang Ji
隋 Sui period
骨儀 Gu Yi

Another book with this title was compiled by Huang Ruheng 黃汝亨 (1558-1626), courtesy name Zhenfu 貞父, style Boxuan Jushi 泊玄居士 or Yulin Jushi 寓林居士, during the Ming period 明 (1368-1644). His apogee of career was assistant administration commissioner (buzhengshi canyi 布政司參議) of Jiangxi.

Huang was of the opinion that the book of Fei Shu was very selective and did not include important personalities. Huang collected further material and wrote additional biographies of 33 persons living in the time covered by Fei's book, and 64 persons from the Song and Yuan periods. Huang classified each person according to three moral ranks.

Huang's book is enriched by an appendix called Liandu 廉蠹 where he demonstrates how ten officials like Zhang Tang 張湯 or Zhi Du 郅都 from the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) succumbed to the temptation of intrigues, bribery and slandering. Unfortunately the author did not make clear which parts of the book stemmed from Fei's original and which parts were added.

The oldest print of Huang's book, dating from 1615, has a length of 14 juan (Wu 1987 says, 12). It is preserved in the Beijing Library as well and is part of the series Xuxiu siku quanshu 續修四庫全書.

Table 2. Contents of Huang Ruheng's 黃汝亨 Lianlizhuan 廉吏傳
列國 Regional states of the Zhou period
季叔行父 Jisun Xingfu, 鬬㝅於菟 Dou Guyutu, 百里奚 Baili Xi, 孫叔敖 Sunshu Ao, 樂喜 Le Xi, 羊舌肸 Yangshe Xi, 公孫僑 Gongsun Qiao, 晏嬰 Yan Ying, 公儀休 Gong Yi Xiu
西漢 Western Han period
田叔 Tian Shu, 趙禹 Zhao Yu, 李廣 Li Guang, 王吉 Wang Ji, 尹翁歸 Yin Wenggui, 蓋寛饒 Gai Kuanrao, 黃覇 Huang Ba, 何並 He Bing, 嚴彭祖 Yan Pengzu, 朱邑 Zhu Yi, 貢禹 Gong Yu, 鄭崇 Zheng Chong, 羊茂 Yang Mao
東漢 Eastern Han period
祭遵 Ji Zun, 祭彤 Ji Tong, 宋弘 Song Hong, 伏湛 Fu Zhan, 宣秉 Xuan Bing,王良 Wang Liang, 郭伋 Guo Ji, 郭丹 Guo Dan, 杜詩 Du Shi, 孔奮 Kong Fen, 張堪 Zhang Kan, 董宣 Dong Xuan, 第五倫 Diwu Lun, 鍾離意 Zhongli Yi, 范遷 Fan Qian, 吳良 Wu Liang, 韋彪 Wei Biao, 趙孝 Zhao Xiao, 廉范 Lian Fan, 鄭均 Zheng Jun, 李恂 Li Xun, 黃香 Huang Xiang, 楊震 Yang Zhen, 袁彭 Yuan Peng, 吳祐 Wu You, 朱穆 Zhu Mu, 崔寔 Cui Shi, 張奐 Zhang Huan, 劉寵 Liu Chong, 楊秉 Yang Bing, 孟嘗 Meng Chang, 范冉 Fan Ran, 羊陟 Yang Zhi, 賈琮 Jia Cong, 羊續 Yang Xu
魏 Empire of Wei
袁渙 Yuan Huan, 王修 Wang Xiu, 毛玠 Mao Jie, 華歆 Hua Xin, 鄭渾 Zheng Hun, 和洽 He Qia, 吉茂 Ji Mao, 沐並 Mu Bing, 時苗 Shi Miao, 滿寵 Man Chong, 田豫 Tian Yu, 徐邈 Xu Miao, 胡質 Hu Zhi
吳 Empire of Wu
呂岱 Lü Dai, 是儀 Shi Yi, 陳表 Chen Biao, 陸胤 Lu Yin
蜀 Empire of Shu
諸葛亮 Zhuge Liang, 董和 Dong He, 鄧芝 Deng Zhi, 劉巴 Liu Ba
晉 Jin period
王祥 Wang Xiang, 羊祐 Yang You, 魯芝 Lu Zhi, 盧欽 Lu Qin, 杜軫 Du Zhen, 山濤 Shan Tao, 李憙 Li Xi, 李胤 Li Yin, 郤詵 Xi Shen, 魏舒 Wei Shu, 劉寔 Liu Shi, 胡威 Hu Wei, 崔洪 Cui Hong, 張華 Zhang Hua, 李重 Li Zhong, 賀循 He Xun, 應詹 Ying Zhan, 孔愉 Kong Yu, 阮修 Ruan Xiu, 鄧攸 Deng You, Wu Yinzhi 吳隱之, 周顗 Zhou Kai, 劉超 Liu Chao, 阮放 Ruan Fang, 庾冰 Yu Bing, 羅含 Luo Han, 禇哀 Chu Ai, 陸納 Lu Na, 王恭, Wang Gong, 吳隱之 Wu Yingzhi, 陶濳 Tao Qian, 何隨 He Sui, 陽騖 Yang Wu, 皇甫眞 Huangfu Zhen
南朝 Southern Dynasties
王鎭之 Wang Zhenzhi, 劉秀之 Liu Xiuzhi, 朱修之 Zhu Xiuzhi, 江秉之 Jiang Bingzhi, 江湛 Jiang Zhan, 宗慤 Zong Que, 阮長之 Ruan Changzhi, 孔顗 Kong Kai, 禇淵 Chu Yuan, 劉善明 Liu Shanming, 虞愿 Yu Yuan, 王延之 Wang Yanzhi, 王琨 Wang Kun, 劉懷慰 Liu Huaiwei, 裴昭明 Pei Zhaoming, 孔琇之 Kong Xiuzhi, 褚炫 Chu Xuan, 張緒 Zhang Xu, 王秀之 Wang Xiuzhi, 何敬叔 He Jingshu, 任昉 Ren Fang, 徐勉 Xu Mian, 傳昭 Fu Zhao, 范述曾 Fan Shuceng, 孫謙 Shu Qian, 明山賓 Ming Shanbin, 顧憲之 Gu Xianzhi, 裴子野 Pei Ziye, 江革 Jiang Ge, 樂法十 Yue Fashi, 顧恊 Gu Xie, 劉杳 Liu Yao, 庾黔婁 Yu Qianlou, 郭祖深 Guo Zushen, 何遠 He Yuan, 蕭勵 Xiao Li, 蕭藻 Xiao Zao, 孔奐 Kong Huan, 姚察 Yao Cha, 禇玠 Chu Jie, 阮卓 Ruan Zhuo
北朝 Northern Dynasties
崔宏 Cui Hong, 長孫道生 Zhangsun Daosheng, 高允 Gao Yun, 胡叟 Hu Sou, 沈文秀 Shen Wenxiu, 元雲 Yuan Yun, 韓麒麟 Han Qilin, 平恒 Ping Heng, 崔挺 Cui Ting, 劉懋 Liu Mao, 盧義僖 Lu Yixi, 鹿念 Lu Nian, 元順 Yuan Shun, 盧景裕 Lu Jingyu, 常景 Jing Chang, 羊敦 Yang Dun, 李元忠 Li Yuanzhong, 郞基 Lang Ji, 袁聿修 Yuan Yuxiu, 石矅 Shi Yao, 賀蘭祥 He Lanxiang, 裴俠 Pei Xia, 唐瑾 Tang Jin
隋 Sui period
韋師 Wei Shi, 侯莫 Hou Mo (陳潁 Chen Ying), 梁毗 Liang Pi, 柳儉 Liu Jian, 劉曠 Liu Kuang, 骨儀 Gu Yi, 房彥謙 Fang Yanqian, 敬肅 Jing Su
唐 Tang period
溫彥博 Wen Yanbo, 屈突通 Qu Tutong, 皇甫無𨓜 Huangfu Wuyi, 李襲譽 Li Xiyu, 張玄素 Zhang Xuansu, 李素立 Li Suli, 岑文本 Cen Wenben, 賈敦頤 Jia Dunyi, 阿史那社尒 Ashina She'er, 韓思彥 Han Siyan, 韓思復 Han Sifu, 蘇瓌 Su Huai, 張嘉貞 Zhang Jiazhen, 崔玄暐 Cui Xuanwei, 李尚隱 Li Shangyin, 裴寛 Pei Kuan, 楊瑒 Yang Chang, 蘇頲 Su Ting, 盧懷愼 Lu Huaishen, 王丘 Wang Qiu, 杜暹 Du Xuan, 陸景倩 Lu Jingqian, 盧奐 Lu Huan, 元德秀 Yuan Dexiu, 劉晏 Liu Yan, 鄭虔 Zhen Min, 歸崇敬 Gui Chongjing, 班宏 Ban Hong, 段秀實 Duan Xiushi, 楊綰 Yang Wan, 常衮 Chang Gun, 顏泉明 Yan Quanming, 李勉 Li Mian, 趙憬 Zhao Jing, 韓滉 Han Huang, 王緯 Wang Wei, 李巘 Li Xian, 薛珏 Xue Jue, 陸贄 Lu Zhi, 陽城 Yang Cheng, 范希朝 Fan Xichao, 馮伉 Feng Kang, 孔戣 Kong Kui, 郗士美 Xi Shimei, 楊於陵 Yang Yuling, 程异 Cheng Yi, 韋丹 Wei Dan, 李夷簡 Li Yijian, 裴玢 Pei Bin, 韋夏卿 Wei Xiaqing, 崔戎 Cui Rong, 韋貫之 Wei Guanzhi, 錢徽 Qian Hui, 何易于 He Yiyu, 李景讓 Li Jingrang, 韋表微 Wei Biaowei, 宋申錫 Song Shenxi, 蕭倣 Xiao Fang, 韋正貫 Wei Zhengguan, 劉瞻 Liu Zhan, 司空圖 Sikong Tu
宋 Song period
范質 Fan Zhi, 曹彬 Cao Bin, 郭守文 Guo Shouwen, 袁繼忠 Yuan Jizhong, 張鑄 Zhang Zhu, 沈倫 Shen Lun, 劉溫叟 Liu Wensou, 賈黄中 Jia Huangzhong, 呂端 Lü Duan, 雷有終 Lei Youzhong, 畢士安 Bi Shi'an, 王旦 Wang Dan, 曹修古 Cao Xiugu, 杜衍 Du Yan, 范仲淹 Fan Zhongyan, 石介 Shi Jie, 王質 Wang Zhi, 包拯 Bao Zheng, 胡宿 Hu Su, 趙抃 Zhao Bian, 彭思永 Peng Siyong, 張載 Zhang Zai, 畢仲游 Bi Zhongyou, 劉恕 Liu Shu, 程珦 Cheng Xiang, 陳師道 Chen Shidao, 柳植 Liu Zhi, 朱震 Zhu Zhen, 張九成 Zhang Jiucheng, 高登 Gao Deng, 楊簡 Yang Jian, 朱熹 Zhu Xi, 熊克 Xiong Ke, 趙汝愚 Zhao Ruyu, 牛大年 Niu Danian, 王萬 Wang Li, 王阮 Wang Ruan, 徐鹿卿 Xu Luqing, 趙逢龍 Zhao Fenglong, 程公許 Cheng Gongxu, 陳宓 Chen Mi, 徐經孫 Xu Jingsun, 孫夢觀 Sun Mengguan, 徐僑 Xu Qiao, 李韶 Li Shao, 歐陽守道 Ouyang Shoudao, 楊文仲 Yang Wenzhong, 陳蒙 Chen Meng, 常楙 Chang Mao
元 Yuan period
耶律楚材 Yelü Chucai, 廉希憲 Lian Xixian, 董文用 Dong Wenyong, 王文榦 Wang Wenhan, 賈居貞 Jia Juzhen, 徹里 Cheli, 申屠致遠 Shentu Zhiyuan, 趙與𤍟 Zhao Yupiao, 董士選 Dong Shixuan, 伯答沙 Botasha (Pādišāh), 張養浩 Zhang Yanghao, 卜天璋 Bu Tianzhang, 黄縉 Huang Jin,曹鑑 Cao Jian, 宋本 Song Ben
蠧附 Appendix: Spoiled officials
(Han) 郅都 Zhi Du, (Han) 張湯 Zhang Tang, (Han) 尹齊 Yin Qi, (Han) 公孫弘 Gongsun Hong, (Han) 朱博 Zhu Bo, (Southern Qi) 虞玩之 Yu Wanzhi, (Liang) 劉覽 Liu Lan, (Northern Zhou) 庫狄士文 Kudi Shiwen, (Tang) 盧𣏌 Lu Qi, (Tang) 牛僧孺 Niu Sengru
Source:
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 972, 999.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 901.