An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Bianyi shiliu ce 便宜十六策

Jan 29, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

Bianyi shiliu ce 便宜十六策 "Sixteen convenient strategies" is a military treatise traditionally attributed to the Three Empires-period 三國 (220-280) minister and general Zhuge Liang 諸葛亮 (181-234). In Zhuge's biography in the official dynastic history Sanguozhi 三國志, there is no mentioning of this book. The Song-period 宋 (960-1279) scholar Chao Gongwu 晁公武 xxx therefore rated it as a forgery of later date. In the administrative history Wenxian tongkao 文獻通考 from the Yuan period 元 (1279-1368), it is called Wuhou shiliu ce 武侯十六策 "Sixteen stratagems of Marquis Wu". It is, in spite of its dubious origin, included in the collected writings of Zhuge Liang, Zhuge Zhongwuhou wenji 諸葛忠武侯文集.

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Lin Chongde 林崇德, Yang Zhiliang 楊治良, Huang Xiting 黃希庭, ed. (2003). Xinlixue da cidian 心理學大辭典 (Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 65.
Liu Qing 劉慶 (1996). "Bianyi shiliu ce 便宜十六策", in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, ed. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 414.
Shu Chang 舒畅 (2009). "Jiangyuan he Bianyi shiliu ce zhong de junshi qingbao sixiang 《将苑》和《便宜十六策》中的军事情报思想", Binzhou Xueyuan xuebao 滨州学院学报, 2009 (1): 5-8.
Zhang Fang 张方 (2006). "Zhuge Liang Bianyi shiliu ce de zhexue sixiang 诸葛亮《便宜十六策》的哲学思想", Henan Jiaoyu Xueyuan xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 河南教育学院学报(哲学社会科学版), 2006 (6): 119-120.