An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

(Qiandao) Lin'an zhi (乾道)臨安志

Oct 25, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald

(Qiandao) Lin'an zhi (乾道)臨安志 is a local gazetteer on the city of Hangzhou 杭州, Zhejiang, compiled by the Southern Song-period 南宋 (1127-1279) scholar Zhou Cong 周淙 (d. 1175), courtesy name Yanguang 彥廣. He hailed from Changxing 長興, Zhejiang, and was first vice transport commissioner (zhuanyun fushi 轉運副使) of the circuit of Liang-Zhe 兩浙路, then metropolitan magistrate of Lin'an, and finally senior compiler (xiuzhuan 修撰) of the Youwen Hall 右文殿.

The 15-juan long gazetteer, compiled duirng the Qiandao reign-period 乾道 (1165-1173), was finished in 1169 but was already lost during the Ming period 明 (1368-1644), barring 3 fascicles. The first of these describes the imperial palace, central government institutions, imperial parks, shrines and temples in Lin'an, the second the history of Hangzhou, its surroundings, culture and customs, waterways, roads, districts and townships, the most important buildings of the city, schools, military garrisons, bridges, local products, the tax quota of each district, granaries and postal stations.

The last of the surviving fascicles is a collection of short biographies of 184 governors that administrated the city. Zhou Cong's text served as a blueprint for later gazetteers on Hangzhou during the Southern Song period like the (Chunyou) Lin'an zhi (淳祐)臨安志 and (Xianchun) Lin'an zhi (咸淳)臨安志. Zhou Cong served itself of an older text with maps on the city, the Hangzhou tujing 杭州圖經 by Li Zong'e 李宗諤 (964-1012).

The descriptive bibliography Siku quanshu zongmu tiyao 四庫全書總目提要 claims that anyone wanting to study the popular collection Wulin zhanggu 武林掌故 had first to read the (Qiandao) Lin'an zhi. It is included in the series Siku quanshu 四庫全書, Wuxuntang congshu 武訓堂叢書, Yueyatang congshu 粵雅堂叢書, Wulin zhanggu congbian 武林掌故叢編 and the large gazetteer collection Zhongguo fangzhi congshu 中國方志叢書.

Table 1. Contents of the (Qiandao) Lin'an zhi (乾道)臨安志
1 Palaces and Towers of "Temporary Residence" 行在所宮闕 (app. Gates 門附), Office of the Heir Apparent 皇子府, the Ancestral Temple 宗廟 (app. Cuan Temple [commemorating princes] 欑宮附), the altars of [grain and] the Earth in the suburbs 郊社, the Three Secretariats 三省, the central government 臺閣, schools 學校, studios 齋舍, Daoist temples 宮觀, ancestral shrines 廟宇, parks 苑囿, courts 院, dwellings 所, the Capital Guard 三衙, the Courts and Directorates 寺監, bureaus 司, granaries 倉, places 場, arsenals 庫, offices 局, postal stations 館驛, garrisons 軍營
2 History 歴代沿革, astronomy 星度分野, customs and habits 風俗, local administration 州境, traffic 四至八到, distances to the capitals 去兩京地里, roads 陸路, waterways 水路, districts 縣, villages 鎮, citywalls and city altars 城社 (app. gates 門附), population census 户口, stables and granaries 廨舍, examination 科舉, guards 禁軍, military 廂軍, bridges 橋梁, local products 物産, taxes and levies 稅賦, pavilions 亭, halls 堂, two-storey buildings 樓, watches 觀, towers 閣, lodges 軒
3 prefects 牧守 (app. personal achievements 政績附)
Shi Xuanyuan 施宣圓 et al. (ed. 1987), Zhongguo wenhua cidian 中國文化辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai shehui kexue chubanshe), p. 357.
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗雲 (ed. 1991), Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Dili 地理卷 (Jilin: Changchun wenshi chubanshe), p. 249.