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Tongzhi 通志


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Tongzhi 通志 "Comprehensive Treatises" is an alternative arrangement of the official dynastic histories compiled by the Southern Song period 南宋 (1127-1279) scholar and state official Zheng Qiao 鄭樵 (1104-1162). Zheng Qiao 鄭樵 has also authored a series of commentaries and remarks to the Confucian classics, as Erya zhu 爾雅注, Shi bianwang 詩辨妄, Liujing aolun 六經奧論, Xisheng yuepu 系聲樂譜, and Jiaji yigao 夾漈遺稿. The Tongzhi was finished in 1161.
The Tongzhi contains 200 juan "scrolls": 18 juan of imperial biographies (diji 帝紀), 2 juan of biographies of empresses (Huanghou liezhuan 皇后列傳), 4 juan of time tables (nianpu 年譜), 51 juan of treatises, in 20 chapters, (lüe 略), and 124 juan of normal biographies (liezhuan 列傳). The biographies are taken from the official dynastic histories, with some minor changes. The chronicles have not been rated as very good because too detailed in some parts, and superficial in others. The types of chapters imitate the official dynastic histories and thus unite the parts separated by dynasties to a kind of universal history, but still in the shape of a biographic-thematic style (jizhuanti 紀傳體) of historiography. The most important and useful part are the 20 treatises, which are too a large part extractions of the treatises in the official dynastic histories. Yet, Zheng Qiao has also added some treatises not covered by the histories, namely that of the large families (Shizulüe 氏族略, modeled after the hereditary biographies [shijia 世家] in the Jinshu 晉書), the types of Chinese characters (Liushu lüe 六書略), the "seven tones", i.e. phonology (Qiyin lüe 七音略), the capital cities and local administration (Duyi lüe 都邑略), and a treatise on plants and animals (Kunchong caomu lüe 昆蟲草木略). Some of these new chapters have been introduced according to the suggestion of the Tang period 唐 (618-907) historian Liu Zhiji 劉知幾 (from his historiography critique Shitong 史通). Zheng Qiao divided the traditional treatise on literature (Yiwen zhi 藝文志) into written literature (Yiwen lüe 藝文略), collations (Jiaochou lüe 校讐略), illustrated books (Tupu lüe 圖譜略), as well as bronze and stone inscriptions (Jinshi lüe 金石略). The quality of the particular chapters differs widely, for which reason the Tongzhi is less studied than similar books, as the Tongdian 通典 or the Wenxian tongkao 文獻通考.
The oldest survining print of the Tongzhi dates from 1321. An older modern print was done by the Shangwu yinshu press 商務印書館 in 1934 as part of the Wanyou wenku series 萬有文庫. The treatises have been published separately in 1976 by the Shijie shuju press 世界書局, with the title of Tongzhi lüe 通志略. The Tongzhi is included in the "Ten Comprehensives" (Shitong 十通), published by the Zhejiang guji press 浙江古籍出版社 in 2000.

Sources: Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 926. ● Wu Huaiqi 吳懷祺 (1992), "Tongzhi 通志", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, p. 1147. ● Zhao Hankun 趙含坤 (ed. 2005), Zhongguo leishu 中國類書 (Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin chubanshe), pp. 102-103.

Xu tongzhi 續通志

The Xu tongzhi 續通志, official title Qinding xu tongzhi 欽定續通志, is an alternative arrangement of the official dynastic histories compiled on imperial order in 1767. It is written as a sequel to the Song period 宋 (960-1279) book Tongzhi 通志 by Zheng Qiao 鄭樵. For the compilation of the Xu tongzhi, a special institute was set up, the Santongguan 三通館. The compilation was supervised by Xi Huang 稽璜, Liu Yong 劉埇 and Ji Jun 紀均. The Xu tongzhi covers the administrative institutions and regulations from the Southern Song period to the end of the Ming dynasty 明 (1368-1644). It is 527 juan "scrolls" long and is divided into imperial biographies (ji 紀), normal and collective biographies (zhuan 傳), and 20 treatises (lüe 略), following the pattern of the Tongzhi, with an introductory chapter explaining the guidelines of the compilation (fanli 凡例). There are, nevertheless, some minor changes and new methods of arrangement: Different designations and names of the biographic chapters have been harmonized. Collective biographies in the official dynastic histories are, depending on the historical background, arranged in a different mode. The chapter on Neo-Confucian scholars (Daoxuezhuan 道學傳), for instance, was included in that of Confucian scholars (Rulin 儒林), while the biographies of Buddhist and Daoist monks (Shilao zhuan 釋老傳) are included in that of magicians (Fangji zhuan 方伎傳). The biographies of princesses are included in the collecive biographies of members of the imperial house (Zongshi zhuan 宗室傳). There are also new chapters for treacherous and rebellious subjects of the Tang period (Jianchen zhuan 姦臣傳, Panchen zhuan 叛臣傳), and eunuch factions (Yandang zhuan 閹黨傳), roaming bandits (Liuzei zhuan 流賊傳) and native rulers of the southwestern tribes (Tusi zhuan 土司傳) of the Ming period. There are no biographies of hereditary houses not relative to the ruling dynasties (yixing shijia 異姓世家), and no more biographies of "wandering knights" (youxia 游俠), assassins (cike 刺客) and "humorists" (huaji 滑稽.). There are no chronicles (nianpu 年譜) provided, like in Zheng Qiao's Tongzhi. The bibliographic treatise (Yiwen lüe 藝文略) has been written in a more detailed way, providing more information on books and authors. The treatise on illustrated books (Tupu lüe 圖譜略) is written more concise, the particular books being arranged in a more systematic way. The treatise on animals and plants (Kunchong caomu lüe 昆蟲草木略) has been enlarged considerably.
There is a print from the Wuying Hall 武英殿 and a reprint from the Zhejiang press 浙江書局 from the end of the Qing period 清 (1644-1911). Between 1935 and 1937, the Shanghai shangwu press 上海商務印書館 published it among the "Ten Comprehensives" (Shitong 十通) in the series Wanyou wenku 萬有文庫.

Sources: Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 930. ● Zhao Hankun 趙含坤 (ed. 2005), Zhongguo leishu 中國類書 (Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin chubanshe), p. 515.

Qing tongzhi 清通志

The Qing tongzhi 清通志 or Qingchao tongzhi 清朝通志, official title Qinding huangchao tongzhi 欽定皇朝通志, is an alternative arrangement of the official dynastic histories compiled on imperial order in 1767. It is written as a sequel to the Song period 宋 (960-1279) book Tongzhi 通志 by Zheng Qiao 鄭樵, and the latter's sequel Xu tongzhi 續通志. For the compilation of the Xu tongzhi and the Qing tongzhi, a special institute was set up, the Santongguan 三通館. The Qing tongzhi is 126 juan "scrolls" long and is divided into 20 treatises (lüe 略), with an introductory chapter explaining the guidelines of the compilation (fanli 凡例). There are no biographies included. The Qing tongzhi covers the administrative institutions and regulations from the year 1616 to the year 1785. There are some minor changes and new methods of arrangement: In the geographic treatise (Duyi lüe 都邑略), no informations on "barbarian" peoples are included. In the treatise on posthumous honorific titles (Shifa lüe 謚法略), no ranks are indicated with the titles. The treatise on bronze and stone inscriptions (Jinshi lüe 金石略) only contains those made on imperial command. The chapter on astronomy (Tianwen lüe 天文略) is more complete than in the Tongzhi, while that on local administration (Dili lüe 地理略) is less detailed than in the Tongzhi. The treatise on Chinese characters (Liushu lüe 六書略) and that on phonology (Qiyin lüe 七音略) also contain information on Manchurian and Mongolian sources. The Qing tongdian does not contain any biographies, but only consists of treatises.
There is a print from the Wuying Hall 武英殿, and a reprint from the Zhejiang press 浙江書局 from the end of the Qing period. Between 1935 and 1937, the Shanghai shangwu press 上海商務印書館 published it among the "Ten Comprehensives" (Shitong 十通) in the series Wanyou wenku 萬有文庫.

Sources: Guo Songyi 郭松義 (1992), "Qingsantong 清三通", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, p. 840. ● Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 2, p. 1438. ● Zhao Hankun 趙含坤 (ed. 2005), Zhongguo leishu 中國類書 (Shijiazhuang: Hebei renmin chubanshe), p. 515-516.

Contents
通志類 Tongzhi lei The Comprehensive Treatises
通志 Tongzhi by 鄭樵 Zheng Quan 續通志 Xu tongzhi 清朝通志 Qingchao tongzhi
lüe treatises size (juan) position (no. of juan) size position size position
1.本紀 Benji Imperial biographies 18 1.-18. 70 1.-70.
2.后妃傳 Houfei Imperial consorts 2 19.-20. 10 71.-80.
3.年譜 Nianpu Annual tables 4 21.-24. -- --
4.氏族略 Shizu Noble families 6 25.-30. 8 81.-88. 10 1.-10.
5.六書略 Liushu The six types of Chinese characters 5 31.-35. 4 89.-92. 3 11.-13.
6.七音略 Qiyin Music theory 2 36.-37. 4 93.-96. 4 14.-17.
7.天文略 Tianwen Calendar 2 38.-39. 6 97.-102. 6 18.-23.
8.地理略 Dili Administrative geography 1 40. 7 103.-109. 8 24.-31.
9.都邑略 Duyi Capitals and cities 1 41. 1 110. 4 32.-35.
10.禮略 Li Rites 4 42.-45. 8 111.-118. 12 36.-47.
11.謚法略 Shifa Posthumous titles 1 46. 3 119.-121. 8 48.-55.
12.器服略 Qifu Tools and robes 2 47.-48. 5 122.-126. 6 56.-61.
13.樂略 Yue Music 2 49.-50. 3 127.-129. 2 62.-63.
14.職官略 Zhiguan State offices 7 51.-57. 10 130.-139. 8 64.-71.
15.選舉略 Xuanju Selection of state officials 2 58.-59. 4 140.-143. 3 72.-74.
16.刑法略 Xingfa Penal law 1 60. 8 144.-151. 6 75.-80.
17.食貨略 Shihuo Economy 2 61.-62. 4 151.-155. 16 81.-96.
18.藝文略 Yiwen Literature 8 63.-70. 8 156.-163. 8 97.-104.
19.校讐略 Jiaochou Collations 1 71. 1 164. 8 105.-112.
20.圖譜略 Tupu Atlases 1 72. 2 165-166. 2 113.-114.
21.金石略 Jinshi Bronze and stone inscriptions 1 73. 4 167.-170. 7 115.-121.
22.災祥略 Zaixiang Ominous portents 1 74. 3 171.-173. 3 122.-124.
23.昆蟲草木略 Kunchong caomu Fauna and flora 2 75.-76. 7 174.-180 2 125.-126.
23.列傳 Liezhuan Biographies 124 77.-200. 460 181.-640.
total size (juan) 200 640 126

July 18, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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