An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Chongwen zongmu 崇文總目

Feb 19, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

Chongwen zongmu 崇文總目 "General catalogue of the Academy for the Veneration of Literature" is a bibliography compiled by the Northern Song-period 北宋 (960-1126) scholar Wang Yaochen 王堯臣 (1003-1058).

The Chongwenyuan 崇文院 was the imperial archive of the Northern Song dynasty. It consisted of the Historiography Institute (shiguan 史館), the Institute for the Glorification of Literature (zhaowenguan 昭文館), and the Academy of Scholarly Worthies (jixianyuan 集賢院) and served as the official institute for the preservation and revision of documents and books. A fourth library was that of the Imperial Archives (mige 秘閣) containing documents and books only accessible to those employed in the inner palace.

The earliest catalogue compiled by this institution was the Sanchao guoshi yiwen zhi 三朝國史藝文志 (lost). In 1037, Emperor Renzong 宋仁宗 (r. 1022-1063) ordered Zhang Guan 張觀, Li Shu 李淑 and Song Qiding 宋祁定 to check a further heap of documents and books, either for preservation or to eliminate those from the archive. Numerous scholars took part in the compilation of the revised catalogue, including Ouyang Xiu 歐陽修 (1007-1072), Song Xiang 宋庠 (996-1066), Wang Zhu 王洙 (997-1057), Lü Gongchuo 呂公綽 (999-1055), Nie Guanqing 聶冠卿 (b. 988) and Guo Zhen 郭稹. In 1042, the Hanlin academician Wang Yaochen 王堯臣 (1003-1058) submitted the catalogue to the throne, and the emperor bestowed it the name Chongwen zongmu.

During the reign of Emperor Shenzong 宋神宗 (r. 1067-1085) it was updated, and again during the reign of Emperor Huizong 宋徽宗 (r. 1100-1125), with the title of Mishu zongmu 秘書總目 (Bishu zongmu 祕書總目). During the Shaoxing reign-period 紹興 (1131-1162) of the early Southern Song 南宋 (1127-1279), a further supplement was compiled, called Shaoxing xu shumu 紹興續書目 (full title Song Shaoxing bishusheng xubian dao siku shumu 宋紹興祕書省續編到四庫書目). A critical commentary on it written by the modern scholar Ye Dehui 葉德輝 (1864-1927) can be found in Ye's reprint series Guangutang shumu congke 觀古堂書目叢刻.

The Chongwen zongmu is 66-juan long, plus one juan of introduction and index (xulu 敘錄). The books are arranged in the four traditional categories of literature, with 45 sub-categories.

Quotation 1. Beginning of the Chongwen zongmu 崇文總目
前史謂秦焚三代之書易以卜筮而得不焚。及漢募羣 書類多散逸而易以故最完。及學者傳之遂分爲三。 Ancient history books say that the Qin dynasty burnt old books, but not such on divination. When the Han dynasty re-arranged the books, many texts were scattered or lost, but the "Changes" were most complete, and the scholars transmitted them in three versions:
一曰田何之易,始自子夏傳之孔子,卦象爻彖與文言說卦等離爲十一篇而說者自爲章句,易之本經也。 The first were the "Changes" of Tian He, which had their origin in the text which Zixia transmitted to Confucius, as Gua, Xiang, Yao, and Tuan, with the separate chapters Wenyan and Shuogua, making out 11 chapters, with the Shuo as paragraph-and-sentence commentaries. This is the actual "Classic of Changes".
二曰焦贛之易,無所師授,自言得之隱者,第述陰陽災異之言,不類聖人之經。 The second were the "Changes" of Jiao Gan, of which the transmission is unknown. It is only said that they were obtained from a [master living] in recluse, but they speak only of Yin and Yang and abnormal phenomena which is not the classic of a Saint.
三曰費直之易,亦無師授專,以彖象文言等參解卦文。凡以彖象文言雜入卦中者自費氏始。 [...] The third were the "Changes" of Fei Zhi, of which the transmission is likewise unknown. The explain the text of the hexagrams by Tuan, Xiang, and Wenyan [commentaries]. The integration of the commentaries into the main text of the hexagrams began with Master Fei.
Together 18 subcategories, with a size of 171 fascicles.
Respectful annotation: In the bibliographical chapters Hanshu yiwen zhi and Suishu jingji zhi, the total number [of books and/or fascicles] is part of the introduction on each subcategory at the end of a chapter, while in Ma Duanlin's Wenxian tongkao, it is mentioned in the beginning. In the draft of the present book, the numbers are given in the beginning [of each subcategory], while the introductions are long lost. In the present [edition] the introductions are [reconstructed] according to Ouyang Xiu's Jilu, while many paragraphs in each entry are quoted from the Wenxian tongkao. In this way, it is possible to follow provisionally the style of the Wenxian tongkao by mentioning the numbers and the total number at the beginning of each subchapter.
歸藏 三卷
Guicang "Return to the storehouse", 3 fascicles.
Commentary by Xue Zheng, Aide of the Defender-in-chief of the Jin dynasty. During the Sui period 13 chapters existed, but now only three chapters of the version Chu jing qi wu, with chaotic wording, impossible to scrutinize further.
周易 一卷
Zhouyi "Changes of the Zhou", 1 fascicle.
Commentary by Zheng Kangcheng. Today only the four chapters Wenyan, Shuogua, Xugua, and Zagua survive, the others are lost. [They?] point at the Yuan que version, which is not far away from the Sacred [spirit].
周易 十卷
Zhouyi, 1 fascicle.
Commentary by Wang Bi.
周易 十卷
Zhouyi, 10 fascicles.
Commentary by Li Dingzuo.
Respectful annotation: In his own preface, Dingzuo speaks of 18 fascicles, but the bibliographical chapter in the Tangshu records 17. It might be that his "Brief guidelines on Wang Bi's [commentary]" were cut out and make an appendix.
易緯 九卷
Yiwei "Apocrypha to the Changes", 9 fascicles.
Commentary by Song Jun.
Siku quanshu 四庫全書 version. The bibliographical entries are reconstructed based on the Wenxian tongkao 文獻通考 and the Tianyige chaoben 天一閣鈔本 (Tianyige shumu 天一閣書目).

The whole bibliography lists 3,445 books, with a physical volume of 30,669 juan. The prefaces and the commentaries to each section, as well as the arrangement, were worked out by Ouyang Xiu (Jilu 集錄). For each book, a description is provided describing the author, the origin and the history of the book. The most important change in comparison to older bibliographies is the incorporation of religious Daoist and Buddhist texts into the masters category, a fact which shows the change of minds among the imperial librarians who were traditionally oriented towards Confucianism and whodispised the two religions as not equal to other writings.

The Chongwen zongmu was not very widespread during the Song period, and the statements about the size of the books differ from that in other sources. During the Ming 明 (1368-1644) and Qing 清 (1644-1911) periods the Chongwen zongmu was stored in the private Tianyige Library 天一閣. During the Kangxi reign-period 康熙 (1662-1722), the remains of it were rediscovered. Half a century later it served as the base for the categorization in the reprint series Siku quanshu 四庫全書, but it had to be reconstructed from quotations in the Ming-period encyclopedia Yongle dadian 永樂大典.

Only about a third of the original text could be reconstructed, with a length of 12 juan. The prefaces to the categories are more or less all preserved, as are the imperial judgments to the catalogue. During the Jiaqing reign-period 嘉慶 (1796-1820), Qian Dongyuan 錢東垣 (Qian Tong 錢侗, 1778-1815) and Qin Jian 秦鑑 added some fragments surviving in a manuscript copy of the Tianyige version (buyi 補遺). They compiled the commented Chongwen zongmu jishi 崇文宗目輯釋, in 5 juan, with a supplement (buyi 補遺) of 1 juan. This reconstruction was published in the series Yueyatang congshu 粵雅堂叢書, Hou zhibuzuzhai congshu 後知不足齋叢書 and Congshu jicheng chubian 叢書集成初編.

Table 1. Literary categories of the Chongwen zongmu 崇文總目
1. 經部 Jingbu Confucian Classics
易經 Yijing Commentaries on the Book of Changes
尚書 Shangshu Commentaries on the Book of Documents
詩經 Shijing Commentaries on the Book of Songs
Li Commentaries on the Rites
Yue Books on music
春秋 Chunqiu Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals
孝經 Xiaojing Commentaries on the Book of Filial Piety
論語 Lunyu Commentaries on the Confucian Analects
小學 Xiaoxue Elementary learning and lexicography
2. 史部 Shibu Historiography
正史 Zhengshi Official dynastic histories
編年 Biannian Annals and chronicles
實錄 Shilu Veritable records
雜史 Zashi Miscellaneous histories
偽史 Weishi Histories of usupatorious states
職官 Zhiguan State offices
儀注 Yizhu State rituals
刑法 Xingfa Law codices
地理 Dili Administrative geography
氏族 Shizu Family registers
歲時 Suishi Edicts concerned with the seasons
傳記 Zhuanji Biographies
目錄 Mulu Bibliographies
3. 子部 Zibu Masters and philosophers
儒家 Rujia Confucian treatises
道家 Daojia Writings of Philosophical Daoism
法家 Fajia Legalist treatises
名家 Mingjia Treatises of sophists or dialecticians
墨家 Mojia Mohist treatises
縱橫家 Zonghengjia Treatises on coalition advisors or diplomatists
雜家 Zajia Miscellaneous treatises
農家 Nongjia Agricultural treatises
小說家 Xiaoshuojia Novellas and stories
兵家 Bingjia Military treatises
類書 Leishu Encyclopaedias
算術 Suanshu Mathematical treatises
藝術 Yishu Treatises on skills and arts
醫書 Yishu Treatises on medicine
卜筮 Bushi Treatises on divination with milfoil stalks
天文占書 Tianwen zhanshu Treatises on astronomy and astrology
曆數 Lishu Treatises on the calendar
五行 Wuxing Treatises on the Five Agents
道書 Daoshu Writings of Religious Daoism
釋書 Shishu Buddhist writings
4. 集部 Jibu Belles-lettres
總集 Zongji Anthologies and collective belles-lettres
別集 Bieji Collected writings of individual persons
文史 Wenshi History of literature, literary critique
Hao Runhua 郝潤華 (2006). "Junzhai dushu zhi de fenlei ji qi yu Chongwen zongmu de guanxi 《郡齋讀書志》的分類及其與《崇文總目》的關係", Shilin 史林, 2006 (10).
Li Caixia 李彩霞 (2004). "Chongwen zongmu banben yuanliu kao ji xiaoxu bian 《崇文總目》版本源流考及小序辨", Henan Tushuguan xuekan 河南圖書館學刊, 2004 (10).
Li Caixia 李彩霞 (2007). "Chongwen zongmu de fenlei zai muluxie shi shang de chengjiu he yingxiang 《崇文總目》的分類在目錄學史上的成就和影響", Jiangxi Tushuguan xuekan 江西圖書館學刊, 2007 (2).
Li Tu 李圖 (1986). "Ouyang Xiu canyu Chongwen zongmu xiuzhuan kao: Jian yu Qiao haoqin, Zhang Hong tongzhi shangque 歐陽修參與《崇文總目》修撰考——兼與喬好勤、張虹同志商榷", Jintu xuekan 晉圖學刊, 1986 (10).
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 2, 1463.
Luo Ling 羅凌 (2014). "Chongwen zongmu fanben xitong sanshi tanyuan 《崇文總目》繁本系統散佚探源", Tushu yu qingbao 圖書與情報, 2004 (10).
Meng Zhaojin 孟昭晉 (1990). "Chongwen zongmu 崇文總目", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Xinwen chuban 新聞•出版 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), 57.
Pan Yinsheng 潘寅生, Guo Jiankui 郭建魁, ed. (1993). Zhonghua shehui kexue gongjushu cidian 中華社會科學工具書辭典 (Lanzhou: Gansu renmin chubanshe), 703.
Qiu Jinyou 邱進友 (1997). "Dui Songdai Chongwen zongmu de tantao 對宋代《崇文總目》的探討", Tushuguanxue yanjiu 圖書館學研究, 1997 (8).
Tang Guirong 唐貴榮, ed. (1997). Zhonguo shumu jiansuo cidian 中國書目檢索辭典 (Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe), 208.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 790.
Yang Hengping 楊恆平 (2012). "Shaoxing gaiding ben Chongwen zongmu xiancun banben kaolun 紹興改定本《崇文總目》現存版本考論", Zhongguo dianji yu wenhua 中國典籍與文化, 2012 (10).
Zhao Shuyang 趙庶洋 (2010). "Siku quanshu ben Chongwen zongmu ziben zhiyi 《四庫全書》本《崇文總目》底本質疑", Zhongguo dianji yu wenhua 中國典籍與文化, 2010 (7).