An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Guoshi jingji zhi 國史經籍志

Dec 17, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Guoshi jingji zhi 國史經籍志 "Bibliographic treatise of the dynastic history [of the Ming]" is a book catalogue written by Jiao Hong 焦竑 (1540-1620), who also wrote the Jiaoshi leilin 焦氏類林, an encyclopaedia on etiquette and ceremonials. His collected writings are called Yiyuan ji 漪園集.

In 1594 Grand Academician Chen Yubi 陳于陛 (1545-1597) suggested to the throne compiling of an official dynastic history, and prosed Jiao Hong, who was senior compiler (xiuzhuan 修撰) of the Hanlin Academy 翰林院, as chief editor. The history book was never finished, but only the single bibliographic chapter, with a length of 5 juan.

The catalogue is divided into the traditional four categories of Confucian Classics, historiography, "Masters and Philosophers", and belles-lettres, but follows the system of the bibliographical chapter in the history Tongzhi 通志 (Tongzhi yiwen lüe 通志藝文略) by Zheng Qiao 鄭樵 (1104-1162).

The Classics section includes a sub-category of commentaries on the whole Classics corpus (Jing zongjie 經總解), and one on lexicography (Xiaoxue 小學).

The historiography section includes official dynastic histories (Zhengshi 正史), annals and chronicles (Biannian 編年), histories of regional states (Bashi 霸史), "miscellaneous histories" (Zashi 雜史), imperial diaries (Qijuzhu 起居注), old regulations (Gushi 故事), books on state offices (Zhiguan 職官), edicts concerning the seasons (Shiling 時令), food and commerce (Shihuo 食貨), state ceremonies (Yizhu 儀注), jurisdictional matters (Faling 法令), biographies (Zhuanji 傳記), geography (Dili 地理), genealogies (Pudie 譜牒), and registers (Bulu 簿錄).

The "Masters" section covers the themes Confucians (Ru 儒), Daoists (Dao 道), Buddhists (Shi 釋), Mohists (Mo 墨), dialecticians (Ming 名), legalists (Fa 法), coalition advisors (Zongheng 縱橫), syncretists (Za 雜), agricultural treatises (Nong 農), novellists (Xiaoshuo 小說), military treatises (Bing 兵), books on astronomy and astrology (Tianwen 天文), the Five Agents (Wuxing 五行), medicine (Yishu 醫術), various skills (Yishu 藝術), and encyclopaedias (Leishu 類書).

The section on belles-lettres includes more sub-categories than is custom: imperial edicts (Zhizhao 制詔), memorials to the throne (Biaozou 表奏), rhapsodies and hymns (Fusong 賦頌), collections of individual writers (Bieji 別集), general collections and anthologies (Zongji 總集), and literary critique (Shiwen ping 詩文評).

For each sub-category, an introduction is given. Unfortunately the compiler did not mark whether a text was still existing, or already lost, but the other bibliographic data are very exact. The book ends with an "errata" appendix (jiumiu 糾繆) that lists errors in all important earlier bibliographies, officials as well as private ones. The compilers of the imperial series Siku quanshu 四庫全書 admired the system of the catalogue, but criticized it for its many inconsistencies.

Song Dingguo 宋定國 and Xie Xingchan 謝星纏 compiled a supplement called Guoshi jingji zhi bu 國史經籍志補.

The catalogue was printed in 1590, and then again a few years later (by Xu Xiangsong's 徐象松 Yanshan Studio 晏山館 in Qiantang 錢塘, Zhejiang), and at the end of the Ming period (by Chen Ruyuan 陳汝元). A moveable-letter print was produced during the Qing period. In 1959 a modern edition was published by the Commercial Press (Shangwu Yinshuguan 商務印書館), with the title Mingshi yiwen zhi 明史藝文志.

Jiao Hong's catalogue must not be confounded with the bibliographical chapter of the realized Mingshi 明史 (96-99 Yiwen zhi 藝文志) which was compiled under the supervision of Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉 (1672-1755). The introduction to the Minshi bibliography explains that Jiao did not have access to some holdings of the imperial palace, and his catalogue included some inconsistencies.

Ding Hongxuan 丁宏宣 (1997). "Lun Jiao Hong yu Guoshi jingji zhi 論焦竑與《國史經籍志》", Tushuguan luntan 圖書館論壇, 1997 (2).
Li Quandi 李權弟, Zhang Jinxian 張金銑 (2014). "Guoshi jingji zhi lunlüe 《國史經籍志》論略", Tushuguan lilun yu shijian 圖書館理論與實踐, 2014 (12).
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 1466.
Liu Kaijun 劉開軍 (2009). "Jiao Hong Guoshi jingj zhi de chuanbo ji qi yingxiang 焦竑《國史經籍志》的傳播及其影響", Kuofang Shifan Xueyuan xuebao (Shehui kexue ban ) 廊坊師範學院學報(社會科學版), 2009 (6).
Pan Yinsheng 潘寅生, Guo Jiankui 郭建魁, ed. (1993). Zhonghua shehui kexue gongjushu cidian 中華社會科學工具書辭典 (Lanzhou: Gansu renmin chubanshe), 723.
Wang Guoqiang 王國強 (1998). "Lun Guoshi jingji zhi 論《國史經籍志》", Zhengzhou Daxu xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 鄭州大學學報(哲學社會科學版), 1998 (11).
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 515.
Xu Xiaoling 許小玲 (2014). "Jiao Hong ji qi Guoshi jingji zhi tiyao bianzheng 焦竑及其《國史經籍志》提要辨正", Anhui Guangbo Dianshi Daxue xuebao 安徽廣播電視大學學報, 2014 (9).
Yang Jinxia 楊金霞, Li Feng 李峰 (2003). "Guoshi jingji zhi: Jingdai zhongyeo de shizhi mulu 《國史經籍志》——明代重要的史志目錄", Tushuguan lilun yu shijian 圖書館理論與實踐, 2003 (10).
Yang Yanqiu 楊艷秋 (2002). "Lun Ming Jiao Hong de shixue sixiang: Jian ping qi Guoshi jingji zhi shilei 論明焦竑的史學思想——兼評其《國史經籍志·史類》", Shixue yuekan 史學月刊, 2002 (11).